Hvordan har Tolkiens personlige mening om evolution påvirket sit arbejde?

2

I Tolkiens univers er der eksempler på evolution (fx hobbits stammer fra mennesker) såvel som oprettelse (fx dværger lavet af Aule).

Hvad ved vi om Tolkiens personlige mening om skabelse og udvikling? Og hvordan påvirker hans mening om dette spørgsmål sit arbejde?

    
sæt quirmel 16.12.2015 / 02:37

3 svar

8

At Tolkien var en kreationist (af en slags) er ubestridelig; Overvej Letter 96, for eksempel:

As for Eden. I think most Christians, except the v[ery] simple and uneducated or those protected in other ways, have been rather bustled and hustled now for some generations by the self-styled scientists, and they've sort of tucked Genesis into a lumber-room of their mind as not very fashionable furniture, a bit ashamed to have it about the house, don't you know, when the bright clever young people called

The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien 96: To Christopher Tolkien. January 1945

Det betyder dog ikke nødvendigvis, at han var imod biologisk udvikling, så længe skabelsens handling stadig var guddommelig; Det er i det væsentlige hvad Theistic Evolution er. Der er desuden udtrykkelige henvisninger til evolutionære processer i hans skrifter; Hobbits er nedstammede fra Mænd er et eksempel, ligesom denne passage fra Hobbit :

[Bilbo] could not swim; and he thought, too, of nasty slimy things, with big bulging blind eyes, wriggling in the water. There are strange things living in the pools and lakes in the hearts of mountains: fish whose fathers swam in, goodness only knows how many years ago, and never swam out again, while their eyes grew bigger and bigger and bigger from trying to see in the blackness

The Hobbit Chapter 5: "Riddles in the Dark"

I et essay udgivet i Morgoths Ring udtaler han, at vækst og forandring er naturlige naturprocesser, der er placeret der af Valaren under deres oprettelse 1 :

When [the Valar] perceived that Melkor would now turn darkness and night to his purposes, as he had aforetime sought to wield flame, they were grieved; for it was a part of their design that there should be change and alteration upon Earth, and neither day perpetual nor night without end.

History of Middle-earth X Morgoth's Ring Part 5: "Myths Transformed" II

Og i en fodnote på den passage:

For it is indeed of the nature of Eä and the Great History that naught may stay unchanged in time, and things which do so, or appear to do so, or endeavour to remain so, become a weariness, and are loved no longer (or are at best unheeded.

History of Middle-earth X Morgoth's Ring Part 5: "Myths Transformed" II

Som vores gode venner på Christianity.SE fortæller os, er der ikke nødvendigvis en modsætning til at være katolsk og acceptere evolution ; citerer fra et svar på dette spørgsmål (til gengæld citerer en erklæring fra pave pius xII:

[The] Teaching Authority of the Church does not forbid that, in conformity with the present state of human sciences and sacred theology, research and discussions, on the part of men experienced in both fields, take place with regard to the doctrine of evolution, in as far as it inquires into the origin of the human body as coming from pre-existent and living matter - for the Catholic faith obliges us to hold that souls are immediately created by God.

Selv om dette blev offentliggjort i 1950, mens Tolkien nærede sig på Ringenes Herre , forekommer det usandsynligt, at dette var et radikalt syn på tiden.

Pope Pius erklæring svarer meget til middelalderens teologi, hvor vækst og forandring (og subcreation af mindre væsener end Iluvatar) er mulig, men "sjælen" kommer stadig til sidst fra Gud.

1 Virkelig underdannelse, da sand skabelse igen er Guds eksklusive valg

    
svar givet 16.12.2015 / 02:41
1

Bøgerne blev skrevet som kristen mytologi, skabelse mv. Men:

Tolkien once described The Lord of the Rings to his friend, the English Jesuit Father Robert Murray, as "a fundamentally religious and Catholic work, unconsciously so at first, but consciously in the revision."source

Også:

In C.S. Lewis and evolution (www.creation.com) Peter Barnes writes, "Theologically, Lewis described himself as an Anglican...He is often regarded as suspect in his views, especially regarding the doctrines of revelation and the atonement. Certainly, Lewis retained some liberal elements in his thinking..." In other words, by thinking for himself, he was a heretic. He was converted to Christianity by J.R.R. Tolkien of Lord of the Rings fame.source

Både Tolkien og C.S. Lewis var kristne og kreationister.

Most discussions of J. R. R. Tolkien and C. S. Lewis stress their kinship--their shared faith, their similar scholarly interests in literature and language, their mutual love of myth, legend, and heroic romance. Scholars have tended as well to note similarities in the distinguished corpus of fantasy literature created by Tolkien and Lewis.source

Tolkiens teori om underdannelse

The doctrine of sub-creation was especially congenial to Tolkien, both as a Christian and as a fantasy writer. As a Christian, Tolkien could view sub-creation as a form of worship, a way for creatures to express the divine image in them by becoming creators. As a fantasy writer, Tolkien could affirm his chosen genre as one of the purest of all fictional modes, because it called for the creation not only of characters and incidents, but also of worlds for them to exist in.

    
svar givet 16.12.2015 / 02:53
0

Så vidt jeg er klar over fra at læse en biografi om Tolkien var han en hengiven katolsk efter hans far. Den bog jeg læste talte aldrig om hans personlige overbevisninger med hensyn til denne slags ting, men generelt (især på Tolkiens tidspunkt) tror den katolske kirke strengt i genesis skabelse.

Der er nogle ligheder mellem bibelsk skabelse og hvordan Eru Ilúvatar skabte Ainur, og de skabte igen Arda (hvor Mellem-Jorden er en del). Læs Silmarillion for mere detaljer, jeg kender det ikke helt fra toppen af mit hoved:)

    
svar givet 16.12.2015 / 02:48